Mei 2017:Accuracy and Reliability of Infrared Thermography in Assessment of the Breasts of Women Affected by Cancer.
Evaluate reliability and accuracy of infrared thermography in the assessment of women with breasts cancer. Thirty-five participants had unilateral breast cancer and 17 control subjects were assessed using infrared thermography. To evaluate reliability, two professionals, who were experienced, measured the temperature of the infrared images in two different moments, with a one-week interval. A biopsy was used as a gold standard exam with regard identify breast cancer. The analysis illustrated excellent reliability in terms of the affected, contralateral and control breasts with the intra-class correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.948 to 0.999. Standard measurement error ranged from 0.04 to 0.28 °C, and minimum detectable change deviated from 0.11 to 0.78 °C. Moreover, low to moderate accuracy was observed in terms of the establishment of the breast cancer diagnosis with values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ranging from 0.571 and 0.749. Breasts affected by cancer present higher skin temperature compared to contralateral and control. Furthermore, an excellent reliability of the analysis of the infrared images and low-moderate accuracy in terms diagnosis was observed. Considering the results, infrared thermography can be applied as an instrument complement the assessment of breast cancer patients, but not for diagnostic purposes.
Maart 2017: Supportive Noninvasive Tool for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using a Thermographic Camera as Sensor.
Breast cancer is the leading disease in incidence and mortality among women in developing countries. The opportune diagnosis of this disease strengthens the survival index. Mammography application is limited by age and periodicity. Temperature is a physical magnitude that can be measured by using multiple sensing techniques. IR (infrared) thermography using commercial cameras is gaining relevance in industrial and medical applications because it is a non-invasive and non-intrusive technology. An asymmetrical temperature in certain human body zones is associated with cancer. In this paper, an IR thermographic sensor is applied for breast cancer detection. This work includes an automatic breast segmentation methodology, to spot the hottest regions in thermograms using the morphological watershed operator to help the experts locate the tumor. A protocol for thermogram acquisition considering the required time to achieve a thermal stabilization is also proposed. Breast thermograms are evaluated as thermal matrices, instead of grayscale or false color images, increasing the certainty of the provided diagnosis. The proposed tool was validated using the Database for Mastology Research and tested in a voluntary group of 454 women of different ages and cancer stages with good results, leading to the possibility of being used as a supportive tool to detect breast cancer and angiogenesis cases.
Augustus 2016 Extraction of medically interpretable features for classification of malignancy in breast thermography.
Thermography, with high-resolution cameras, is being re-investigated as a possible breast cancer screening imaging modality, as it does not have the harmful radiation effects of mammography. This paper focuses on automatic extraction of medically interpretable non-vascular thermal features. We design these features to differentiate malignancy from different non-malignancy conditions, including hormone-sensitive tissues and certain benign conditions, which have an increased thermal response. These features increase the specificity for breast cancer screening, which had been a long known problem in thermographic screening while retaining high sensitivity. These features are also agnostic to different cameras and resolutions (up to an extent). On a dataset of around 78 subjects with cancer and 187 subjects without cancer, that have some benign diseases and conditions with thermal responses, we are able to get around 99% specificity while having 100% sensitivity. This indicates a potential break-through in thermographic screening for breast cancer. This shows promise for undertaking a comparison to mammography with larger numbers of subjects with more data variations.
Voordat u ergens een screening laat doen, controleer dan of de thermograaf een IAMT opleiding heeft en met de Total Vision medische software werkt. Dan bent u gegarandeerd van de hoogste kwaliteit beelden, begeleiding en medische rapportage. Alle centra die op deze website vermeld staan, voldoen aan deze eisen. Medische studies wijzen uit dat het in beeld brengen van fysiologische processen een zeer nuttige preventieve methode is.
Monique van Sambeek en Geertje Baltusssen zijn gecertificeerde thermografen en aangesloten bij de IAMT.
Op Pubmed staan meer dan 1400 artikelen die gaan over thermografie in medische toepassingen. Hieronder een paar zeer waardevolle artikelen.
Een groot onderzoek werd gedaan in India. Het onderzoek heeft 1008 vrouwen onderzocht in de leeftijd van 20 tot 60 jaar oud. De situatie in India is zo dat de mensen niet naar een kliniek toekomen en dus was er behoefte aan een screening tool dat de massa bereikt.
Thermografie als screeningtest maakte dit mogelijk omdat een infraroodcamera met een statief en een laptop makkelijk te verplaatsen zijn. Conclusie van het onderzoek was dat 49 vrouwen nader onderzocht werden vanwege temperatuur verschillen in de borsten. (verschillen hoger dan 2,5 (? 0,25) graad Celsius) 41 van deze vrouwen bleken bij nader onderzoek inderdaad borstkanker te hebben, 8 vrouwen hadden ook hogere temperatuurverschillen in de borsten maar dat bleken vrouwen te zijn die borstvoeding gaven of fibrocystische borsten hadden.
Uit dit onderzoek bleek dat thermografie een nauwkeurigheid heeft van 97,6%. [nt J Surg. 2014 Dec;12(12):1439-43. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.10.010. Epub 2014 Nov 7. Evaluation of digital infra-red thermal imaging as an adjunctive screening method for breast carcinoma: a pilot study]
Stark. A., Way, S. The Screening of Well Women for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Clinical Examination with Thermography and Mammography. Cancer 33: 1671-1679, 1974
Researchers screened 4,621 asymptomatic women, 35% who were under age 35 y.o. and detected 24 cancers (7.6 per 1000) with a sensitivity and specificity of 98.3% and 93.5% respectively
Y.R. Parisky, A. Sardi, R. Hamm, K. Hughes, L. Esserman, S. Rust, K.Callahan, Efficacy of Computerized Infrared Imaging Analysis to Evaluate Mammographically Suspicious Lesions. AJR:180, January 2003
Compared results of Infrared imaging prior to biopsy. The researchers determined that Thermography offers a safe, noninvasive procedure that would be valuable as an adjunct to mammography in determining whether a lesion is benign or malignant with a 99% predictive value.
Gros, C, Gautherie, M. Breast Thermography and Cancer Risk Prediction. Cancer 45:51-56 1980 From a patient base of 58,000 women screened with thermography, researchers followed 1,527 patients with initially healthy breasts and abnormal thermograms for 12 years. Of this group, 40% developed malignancies within 5 years. The study concluded that “an abnormal thermogram is the single most important marker of high risk for the future development of breast cancer”
Spitalier, H., Giraud, D. et al. Does Infrared Thermography Truly Have a Role in Present Day Breast Cancer Management? Biomedical Thermology pp.269-278, 1982
Spitalier and associates screened 61,000 women using thermography over a 10 year period. The false negative and positive rate was found to be 11% (89% sensitivity and specificity). 91% of the nonpalpable cancers (T0 rating) were detected by thermography. Of all the patients with cancer, thermography alone was the first alarm in 60% of cases. The authors noted “in patients having no clinical or radiographic suspicion of malignancy, a persistent abnormal breast thermogram represents the highest known risk factor for the future development of breast cancer”
Jiang LJ, Ng FY et al A Perspective on Medical Infrared Imaging. J Med Technol 2005 Nov-Dec;29(6):257-67 Since the early days of thermography in the 1950s, image processing techniques, a sensitivity of thermal sensors and spatial resolution have progressed greatly, holding out fresh promise for infrared (IR) imaging techniques. Applications in civil, industrial and healthcare fields are thus reaching a high level of technical performance. In many diseases, there are variations in blood flow, and these, in turn, affect the skin temperature. IR imaging offers a useful and non-invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment (as therapeutic aids) of many disorders, in particular in the areas of rheumatology, dermatology, orthopedics and circulatory abnormalities. This paper reviews many usages (and hence the limitations) of thermography in biomedical fields.